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Vaccine Basics and Technology

Your Guide to Understanding
COVID-19 Vaccines

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines help our bodies develop immunity to the virus that causes COVID-19 without us having to get the illness. Different types of vaccines work in different ways to offer protection. But with all types of vaccines, our bodies will develop immunity and our immune cells namely T-lymphocytes as well as B-lymphocytes will remember how to fight that virus in the future. Currently, there are different types of COVID-19 vaccines that are authorized and recommended and others are undergoing large-scale clinical trials.1

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, none of the DNA vaccines were granted full approval for use in humans, though some were undergoing human trials. Because of the pandemic, research in this area has progressed substantially.2

Below is a description of how each type of vaccine prompts our bodies to recognize and protect us from the virus that causes COVID-19.

Learn more about the different COVID-19 vaccines

DNA vaccines

mRNA vaccines

Protein Subunit

Viral Vector (both replicating/nonreplicating)

Live Vaccine (attenuated)

Virus (inactivated)

Virus-Like Particles (VLPs)

What is Plasmid
DNA Vaccine Technology

DNA vaccines are considered as a third-generation vaccination approach in which antigenic materials are encoded as DNA plasmids to elicit adaptive immunity. It involves direct introduction into appropriate tissues of a plasmid containing the DNA sequence encoding the antigen(s) against which an immune response is sought, and relies on the in situ production of the target antigen. As compared to other platforms, DNA vaccination is considered to have a strong safety profile, as DNA plasmids neither replicate nor elicit vector-directed immune responses in hosts.10,11

DNA vaccine consists of delivering genes or fragments of it, encoding immunogenic antigens to the host’s cells by using DNA plasmids as a vector. This approach induces both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses efficiently.3

ZyCoV-D® has now become the world’s first DNA vaccine for human use to get emergency use authorization for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).12-14

Brief about pDNA , the structure and how does it work to trigger immune response against future COVID-19 infection.

Novel Features of DNA Vaccine Technology

Over the last 2 decades, DNA vaccine research has made much progress. The simplicity and versatility of this vaccine approach has generated a great deal of excitement and inspired additional preclinical studies targeting a plethora of viral and nonviral antigens.15

Highlights on the advantages of this novel platform are as under:16,17

Myths and Facts About DNA Vaccines

How is COVID-19 vaccine developed?

Precautions after COVID-19 vaccination

COVID-19 Vaccine: Myths and Facts

How is COVID-19 vaccine efficacy assessed?

Your guide to adverse effects of vaccination

For HCPs

This section contains information intended for healthcare professionals only.

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